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From Jun to Senior: A developer has no goal, only a path

July 07, 2023
6 min.
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Junior, Middle, and Senior are three levels of classification for software developers that characterize the experience and skill level of each. There is a joke that a Junior should know all algorithms, a Middle should know about their existence, and a Senior should know which computer the Junior is using. While this joke is not entirely accurate, it gives an idea that every Junior aspires to become a Senior. How challenging the path is and where it will ultimately lead will become clear through a detailed examination of each class.


A young developer at the beginning of their career, typically fresh out of university or with other programming-related education. They possess basic knowledge and skills but lack practical experience. A Junior developer requires guidance and mentoring from senior developers. They carry out tasks in projects as assigned and work under the supervision of a Middle or Senior developer. They may not fully grasp the scale of development yet and are primarily focused on gaining hands-on experience at this stage.

Hard skills Junior

  • Basic knowledge of programming and languages such as PHP, Python, Java, C#, or JavaScript.
  • Understanding of fundamental algorithm principles and data structures.
  • Application of object-oriented programming (OOP) concepts.
  • Usage of development tools like Integrated Development Environments (IDEs), version control systems (Git), and debuggers.
  • Skills in web development, including HTML, CSS, and basics of client-server architecture.
  • Comprehension of software development principles and patterns.
  • Ability to read and make minor edits to existing code.


A Mid-level developer is well-equipped to work independently on projects. They possess a deep understanding of programming and development. They tackle complex tasks, participate in architectural decisions, and work on various project modules. They can leverage their experience when facing challenges and may have certain mentoring responsibilities for Juniors. They aspire to further enhance their skills and can advance to the next level – Senior.

Hard skills Middle

  • Deep knowledge of a chosen programming language and its frameworks.
  • Understanding of complex algorithmic concepts and data structures.
  • Experience with databases and SQL for querying and managing data.
  • Proficiency in tools and technologies specific to their field.
  • Ability to design and build moderately complex applications, understanding architectural principles.
  • Teamwork skills, ability to complete tasks and collaborate with other developers and project stakeholders.


This is a highly skilled and experienced developer with deep knowledge and expertise in their chosen field. A Senior developer has significant experience and successfully completed projects under their belt. They can lead and coordinate a team of developers, make strategic decisions, and participate in architectural discussions. They are responsible for designing the system, defining key components, and making technology choices. They serve as mentors for both Juniors and Middles.

Hard skills Senior

    • Deep knowledge of the chosen programming language and expert command of its frameworks.
    • Skills in advanced algorithmic concepts, performance optimization, and complex data structures.
    • Design and development of complex and scalable systems.
    • Mastery of database principles and types, including relational and NoSQL databases.
    • Ability to optimize code and processes for application performance.
    • Application of new technologies and tools related to the specific development domain: cloud platforms, microservices architecture, DevOps, and process automation.
    • Ability to analyze and resolve complex issues and propose innovative and efficient solutions.
    • Experience in mentoring junior developers, task delegation, and collaboration with other team members to achieve project objectives.

    How long does Jun need to become a Senior

    The time period for becoming a developer varies greatly and depends on several factors:

    • intensity and quality of training,
    • experience,
    • individual abilities and efforts.

    The more time and energy a Junior developer is willing to invest in learning and enhancing their skills, the faster they will progress. This includes self-study of new concepts, participation in projects, mentoring from experienced developers, and additional professional education.

    For some individuals, it takes more time to reach the Senior level than others. Personal abilities, technical aptitude, and perseverance also influence the speed of progression. On average, it takes 3-7 years for a Junior developer to reach the Senior level. However, for many, it may take even longer, up to ten years. The main catch is that in software development, you can't afford to stand still, so learning and skill development continue throughout a programmer's journey.

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    Publication author:

    Lubov Azarnova